Switching from other dairy types to whole-fat yogurt may play a role in preventing diabetes, research has suggested.
Modifying diet is key in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, as confirmed in large-scale trials of lifestyle change. Most dietary guidelines recommend low-fat dairy products for adults However, recent research has cast doubt over the assumption that whole-fat dairy products increase the risk of type 2 diabetes; indeed, one recent large-scale study has suggested the opposite is true.
In this large-scale cohort study, the authors looked into the effects of swapping between the types of dairy products we eat, without changing our overall energy intake. They discovered that whole-fat yogurt, eaten in place of full- or low-fat milk or even low-fat yogurt, is linked with a reduced rate of type 2 diabetes.
Comparing dairy product types
In the study, participants with a higher intake of one dairy product type and a lower intake of another type were compared with those who had the opposite intakes. This allowed the authors to assess the effects of substituting between dairy types without changing overall energy intake.
The authors used data from 54,277 people who entered the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort at age 50-64 years. They were asked to complete a food frequency questionnaire about the dairy products they consumed.
Whole-fat yogurt in place of other dairy products was linked to lower rate of diabetes
Analysis of the results showed that when whole-fat yogurt products were replaced with low-fat yogurt products, there was a higher rate of type 2 diabetes per daily serving substituted.
In addition, whole-fat yogurt products eaten in place of low- or whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes.
Why might whole-fat yogurt be better than low-fat yogurt?
Yogurt may hold advantages over milk because fermented dairy products contain probiotic bacteria and bioactive compounds that promote a healthy gut microbiome. An imbalance of the gut microbiome has been associated with insulin resistance, a key characteristic leading to type 2 diabetes.
When considering why whole-fat yogurt, rather than low-fat yogurt, was associated with a lower rate of diabetes than other dairy types, the authors point to studies suggesting that higher concentrations of dairy fats in the circulation are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, further studies are needed to see whether whole-fat fermented dairy products can indeed reduce the risk of diabetes.
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