Obesity is a major driving force in the worldwide epidemic of TD2 and is associated with excessive fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. There is growing evidence that gut
microbiota also play an important role in the development of obesity. Interactions between gut microbiota and host metabolism are crucial, predisposing to obesity and diabetes.
Composition of gut microbiota
Gut microbiota composition showed differences, when comparing obese vs. lean animal and human subjects. Altered gut microbiota have been strongly associated with host obesity and risk of developing T2D.
Evidence suggests that the difference may lie in two major bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Higher Firmicutes and lower Bacteroidetes were found in obese subjects, whereas the opposite correlation was found in people with normal weight.
The influence of diet
Diet has a dominant role in shaping gut microbiota. Studies showed that dietary change was associated with 57% structural variation in gut microbiota. “Balanced” gut microbiota are necessary to maintain the equilibrium between energy generation and expenditure, influencing the host fat storage. A healthy diet may benefit the gut microbiota composition, including probiotics in yogurt.