A systematic review, published in the online journal Nutrition, evaluated the influence of yogurt consumption in adults and children treated with antibiotics. The authors used several databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to assess the association between yogurt consumption and the lower risk of AAD. 314 subjects, with significant heterogeneity (67%) and with assessed risk for bias, were included from two RCTs. However, the low methodological quality of both RCTs needs to be taken into account.
Lack of data
They found no consistent effect of yogurt consumption in reducing the risk of AAD on one hand. The results of the fixed effect model show a reduced risk for diarrhea by 44%, in comparison to no intervention. On the other hand, in the random effects model no significant reduced risk was found. The lack of scientific data is crucial, given the simple nature of this intervention. The authors recommend large and qualified RCTs in order to evaluate the effect of yogurt on AAD in the future.